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压铸机油压机变频应用

发布时间:2019.10.06 10:45  浏览次数:   作者:admin

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压(ya)(ya)铸机油压(ya)(ya)机变频(pin)应用  控制精准更迅速

前(qian)言(yan)

对于压铸制品(pin)(pin)行业来说(shuo),电(dian)耗(hao)是其生产成本构(gou)成的(de)主要部(bu)分,而压铸机(ji)是制品(pin)(pin)厂(chang)的(de)主要能耗(hao)设(she)备之一,人称电(dian)老虎(hu)。因而降低压铸机(ji)的(de)能耗(hao)成为压铸行业降低成本,提高产品(pin)(pin)竞争(zheng)力的(de)有效途径。


行业简述

目前(qian)绝大(da)(da)多数的(de)(de)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)(ji)都属(shu)于(yu)液(ye)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)传动压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)(ji),液(ye)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)传动系统中的(de)(de)动力(li)由电机(ji)(ji)带动油泵(beng)提(ti)供。在压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)铸(zhu)周(zhou)期(qi)过程(cheng)中的(de)(de)变(bian)(bian)化,压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)(ji)在不(bu)同工(gong)(gong)序(xu)下需要(yao)的(de)(de)流(liu)量(liang)(liang)和压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)不(bu)同,必须依靠流(liu)量(liang)(liang)阀(fa)和压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)阀(fa)来调(diao)节(jie)不(bu)同工(gong)(gong)序(xu)所须的(de)(de)不(bu)同流(liu)量(liang)(liang)和压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)。并且当负荷变(bian)(bian)化比较大(da)(da)时,由于(yu)定量(liang)(liang)泵(beng)不(bu)可调(diao)节(jie)输出(chu)功率(lv),因(yin)此多余的(de)(de)能(neng)量(liang)(liang)只能(neng)消耗在挡板、油路泄漏、油温的(de)(de)升高(gao)中,也(ye)加剧了各种阀(fa)的(de)(de)磨损、又造成(cheng)(cheng)油温过高(gao)、电机(ji)(ji)噪音过大(da)(da)、以(yi)及(ji)机(ji)(ji)械寿命缩短等现象(xiang)。并且通(tong)常在设计电机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)容(rong)量(liang)(liang)时比实际(ji)需要(yao)高(gao)出(chu)很多,存在“大(da)(da)马拉(la)小车”的(de)(de)现象(xiang),造成(cheng)(cheng)电能(neng)的(de)(de)大(da)(da)量(liang)(liang)浪(lang)费(fei)。因(yin)此推广(guang)变(bian)(bian)频器(qi)在压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)(ji)上的(de)(de)应用,对于(yu)减少能(neng)源浪(lang)费(fei)具有重要(yao)意(yi)义。


工(gong)艺说(shuo)明

压(ya)铸机合模和(he)(he)脱模,开模系统(tong)所需(xu)油(you)(you)压(ya)较低,且时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)较短(duan);而注(zhu)射,保压(ya),冷(leng)却系统(tong)所需(xu)油(you)(you)压(ya)较高,且时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)较长(zhang),一般为一个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)周期(qi)的(de)(de)(de)40%~60%。每(mei)个(ge)阶段时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)长(zhang)短(duan)与(yu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件有(you)(you)关(guan);间(jian)(jian)(jian)歇(xie)期(qi)长(zhang)短(duan)也与(yu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)情况有(you)(you)关(guan),有(you)(you)时(shi)(shi)可以不要间(jian)(jian)(jian)歇(xie)期(qi)。如果(guo)注(zhu)射的(de)(de)(de)螺(luo)杆用液油(you)(you)马达驱(qu)动,注(zhu)射时(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)系统(tong)油(you)(you)压(ya)会高一些。压(ya)铸机加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)重量,从数(shu)(shu)十克(ke)到数(shu)(shu)万克(ke)不等(deng)。因此,压(ya)铸机就有(you)(you)中小型和(he)(he)大(da)型之分,加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)数(shu)(shu)十克(ke)的(de)(de)(de)小工(gong)(gong)(gong)件和(he)(he)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)数(shu)(shu)千克(ke)的(de)(de)(de)大(da)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件一个(ge)周期(qi)的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)也是不相同(tong)的(de)(de)(de),就是对同(tong)一台压(ya)铸机,加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)原料(liao)不同(tong),各段工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺流(liu)程中所需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)压(ya)力(li)和(he)(he)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)也是需(xu)要改变的(de)(de)(de)。


节能改造原(yuan)理

由压(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)工(gong)作(zuo)原(yuan)理得(de)知(zhi),高(gao)压(ya)截流(liu)(liu)(liu)是油(you)(you)泵(beng)马达耗能的(de)(de)浪(lang)费之处。我公司(si)生产的(de)(de)压(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)专用(yong)电(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)矢量(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)频(pin)器(qi)利用(yong)这(zhei)(zhei)一(yi)特点,根(gen)据(ju)压(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)生产工(gong)艺的(de)(de)需求,采(cai)用(yong)变(bian)频(pin)器(qi)调(diao)节(jie)油(you)(you)泵(beng)马达的(de)(de)转速,根(gen)据(ju)压(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)工(gong)作(zuo)时所(suo)需的(de)(de)压(ya)力(li)或流(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)参数及(ji)压(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)的(de)(de)动作(zuo)反(fan)馈(kui)信(xin)(xin)号(hao)同步控制压(ya)铸(zhu)机(ji)的(de)(de)比例流(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)阀、比例压(ya)力(li)阀实(shi)现压(ya)力(li)和(he)流(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)自动调(diao)节(jie),其(qi)效果相当于(yu)将定量(liang)(liang)(liang)泵(beng)改造成变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)泵(beng),使通(tong)过溢(yi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)阀的(de)(de)回流(liu)(liu)(liu)流(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)降到最低,油(you)(you)泵(beng)输(shu)出与(yu)整机(ji)运行所(suo)需压(ya)力(li)和(he)流(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)相匹配,而(er)且无高(gao)压(ya)溢(yi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)能量(liang)(liang)(liang)损失。变(bian)频(pin)器(qi)通(tong)过反(fan)馈(kui)信(xin)(xin)号(hao)跟踪(zong)各个工(gong)作(zuo)阶(jie)段的(de)(de)压(ya)力(li)和(he)流(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua),并自动调(diao)节(jie)油(you)(you)泵(beng)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)的(de)(de)转速。这(zhei)(zhei)样(yang),油(you)(you)泵(beng)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)耗将跟随输(shu)出负载的(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)而(er)变(bian)化(hua),从(cong)而(er)可最大限(xian)度的(de)(de)节(jie)电(dian)(dian),即经济(ji)又实(shi)用(yong)。很多(duo)工(gong)厂通(tong)过改造,已取得(de)了显著的(de)(de)经济(ji)效益(yi)。


压铸机的(de)电能消耗(hao)

压铸机的(de)电能(neng)消耗主(zhu)要表现在以(yi)下几个部(bu)分(fen):

1)液(ye)压系统油泵的电能消耗(hao)

2)加热(re)器的电(dian)能消耗

3)循(xun)环冷却(que)水泵的电能消耗(hao)

在压铸(zhu)(zhu)车间内,一般多台(tai)压铸(zhu)(zhu)机(ji)共用(yong)一台(tai)冷却水(shui)泵,其(qi)中液压油(you)泵电(dian)机(ji)的用(yong)电(dian)量占整个压铸(zhu)(zhu)机(ji)用(yong)电(dian)量的80%以上,所以降(jiang)低其(qi)耗电(dian)量是压铸(zhu)(zhu)机(ji)节(jie)能的关键。




改造效果

高节(jie)电率(lv):改造(zao)后,使(shi)定量(liang)泵变(bian)为(wei)节(jie)能型(xing)变(bian)量(liang)泵,压(ya)铸机液压(ya)系统与(yu)整机运行所需功率(lv)基本匹(pi)配(pei),无高压(ya)节(jie)流(liu)(liu)、溢(yi)流(liu)(liu)能量(liang)损(sun)失,节(jie)电率(lv)可达20%~60%。

高效率(lv)(lv):改(gai)造(zao)前(qian)功率(lv)(lv)因(yin)数一般为0.5~0.8,改(gai)造(zao)后可(ke)达0.96 以上,故能(neng)显着提高电(dian)(dian)网功率(lv)(lv)因(yin)数,降(jiang)低无功电(dian)(dian)流(liu),从而降(jiang)低线路损耗。对供电(dian)(dian)设备而言,则(ze)起(qi)到(dao)了增容的作用(yong)。

高(gao)可靠性:保(bao)留(liu)压(ya)铸机(ji)原有控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)方式及(ji)油(you)路不(bu)(bu)变(bian)做备用(yong),出现故(gu)障(zhang)及(ji)时(shi)报警,具有过压(ya)、过流、过载、过热、欠压(ya)及(ji)对地短(duan)路等多种保(bao)护,还可有效地保(bao)护油(you)泵电机(ji)。采用(yong)市电/节能运行控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)方式,一旦故(gu)障(zhang)时(shi)不(bu)(bu)影响生产。延长机(ji)械寿(shou)命(ming)、改善(shan)环(huan)境:软起(qi)动(dong)减(jian)轻(qing)开机(ji)锁模(mo)震动(dong),延长设(she)备和(he)模(mo)具的(de)使用(yong)寿(shou)命(ming)、减(jian)轻(qing)噪音(yin)。改善(shan)工作环(huan)境,系统发热明(ming)显(xian)减(jian)少(shao),油(you)温(wen)稳定,冷却(que)用(yong)水量可节省30%以上。延长密封组件的(de)使用(yong)寿(shou)命(ming),降低停机(ji)维修机(ji)会,节省大量维护费(fei)用(yong)。

软启(qi)动(dong)节能(neng):由于(yu)(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)为直接启(qi)动(dong)或Y/Δ启(qi)动(dong),启(qi)动(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流等于(yu)(yu)(3-7)倍(bei)额定电(dian)(dian)(dian)流,这样会对(dui)机(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)设备和(he)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网造(zao)成(cheng)严重的(de)损(sun)坏,而且会对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网容量要求过(guo)高,启(qi)动(dong)时产生(sheng)的(de)大电(dian)(dian)(dian)流和(he)震动(dong)时对(dui)设备的(de)使用寿(shou)命极为不(bu)利(li)。而使用变(bian)频(pin)节能(neng)改造(zao)后(hou),用变(bian)频(pin)器的(de)软启(qi)动(dong)功能(neng)将(jiang)使启(qi)动(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流从(cong)零开始(shi),最大值也(ye)不(bu)超(chao)过(guo)额定电(dian)(dian)(dian)流,减轻了对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网的(de)冲击和(he)对(dui)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)要求延长了设备和(he)模(mo)具的(de)使用寿(shou)命。


结论


1、直观节电效果(guo)的(de)结论


对压铸机(ji)节电(dian)改造(zao)之后,按最(zui)低的节电(dian)效果也只需6个月时间左右即可收(shou)回(hui)投(tou)资(zi)(zi)成本,而设备的可用(yong)期(qi)限至少(shao)十年(nian)以上,“节电(dian)是回(hui)收(shou)期(qi)最(zui)快的投(tou)资(zi)(zi),也是受益最(zui)长的投(tou)资(zi)(zi)”.用(yong)户可以减少(shao)实际的电(dian)费开(kai)支,达到节约开(kai)支,降低经营成本、促(cu)进企业发(fa)展的目标。


2、隐含(han)的经济效益(yi)


由(you)节(jie)电(dian)(dian)器的(de)(de)节(jie)电(dian)(dian)原理可知(zhi),除(chu)了具有直观的(de)(de)节(jie)电(dian)(dian)效(xiao)益(yi)(yi)之外,其(qi)对(dui)设备(bei)及线路的(de)(de)保护(hu)作用(yong)从而产生的(de)(de)使(shi)系统运(yun)行(xing)寿命延长,设备(bei)发热量(liang)小、运(yun)行(xing)效(xiao)率(lv)提高、维(wei)护(hu)费用(yong)减少,对(dui)投(tou)资(zi)方来说(shuo)也是一笔不可忽视的(de)(de)经济效(xiao)益(yi)(yi)。特(te)别是通过(guo)节(jie)电(dian)(dian)改造后,用(yong)电(dian)(dian)量(liang)下降(jiang)(jiang)20-40%,降(jiang)(jiang)低了配电(dian)(dian)网中的(de)(de)功(gong)率(lv)损耗,提高变(bian)压器的(de)(de)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)效(xiao)率(lv),带来的(de)(de)隐含的(de)(de)经济效(xiao)益(yi)(yi)对(dui)投(tou)资(zi)方来说(shuo)亦又是一笔可观的(de)(de)收益(yi)(yi)。


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